Community Check Box (CCB) Codes
Congratulations! You are documenting your group's community efforts – helping make visible what you are accomplishing for the purposes of improvement, accountability, and celebration.
Once you have data entered into the system, you will be able to engage in sensemaking around your documented accomplishments. This will include the ability to look at real-time graphs and ask questions like, "What are we seeing?" "What does it mean?" and "What are the implications for adjustment?"
This document outlines some things that may help you as you get started on documentation, namely, guidance for deciding how to code the information you are documenting.
The table below offers a summary of the codes used to categorize different types of events (activities, accomplishments, or outputs that are facilitated by the initiative or group and related to its goals and objectives).
There are several general considerations in coding events. (More specific definitions, coding instructions, and examples/ non-examples for each of the eight types of events follow.)
Distinguishing between Events that are External or Internal to the Initiative
Most of your events will involve people not directly associated with the initiative. For example, group members may work with law enforcement to improve monitoring of and response to community laws and norms or may co-sponsor a walk to promote Red Ribbon week. Both of these events include people from outside the initiative (law enforcement and walk organizers and participants) and are considered external events. External events can be classified as Community Actions, Community Changes, Services Provided, or Media Coverage. External events involve making things happen in the community related to the group's goals and objectives.
Some events facilitate the development of the partnership or group in attaining its goals and objectives. These events may be internal, involving only those working directly with the group. For example, the Steering Committee may complete their strategic planning process and adopt a formal action plan; or an executive from the initiative's Board of Directors may donate office supplies. Organizational Changes (such as the first example) are internal events. Resources Generated (e.g., volunteers' time, donated materials, or money) are internal events if the beneficiary is your group.
Identifying and Documenting multiple Events Contained in One Log Entry
A single reported entry may sometimes contain several discrete events that should actually have been recorded separately. Support the documentation by breaking out the one entry into several items and coding each event separately. For example, the following entry might be recorded on a log form: "A second awareness event was facilitated in the East End neighborhood. Publications were distributed and workshops were given. The event was filmed by the local TV Station and appeared in the evening news." The reported entry includes at least one Service Provided, and the TV coverage would be coded Media.
There are instances where events can meet multiple definitions. The most likely combination is Community Change and Service Provided (e.g., the first instance of drug screening for high school athletes is both a new practice—community change—and a Service Provided). Other instances in which an event may meet multiple definitions include when a media event is also a community change (e.g., a newspaper covers an issue for the first time).
Relationship between Community Action and Community/ System Change
Community Actions and Community Change generally relate to each other. Keep in mind the goal or outcome of an action when coding it. The purpose of a Community Action is to make some change in program, policy, or practice related to the group's goals and objectives (a Community Change). For each Community Action, the intended Community Change should be evident. A person filling out a log may word items to fit a particular category or definition. The evaluator must code the item relative to what actually happened.
General Definition: New or modified programs, policies or practices in the community or system facilitated by the initiative and related to its goals and objectives. Changes that have not yet occurred, which are unrelated to the group's goals, or those which the initiative had no role in facilitating are not considered community changes for the initiative. [Note: We use the term "Community/System" and "Community" Changes interchangeably since they represent the same type of event at different levels (e.g., neighborhood or city or broader system).
CC1 Community changes must meet all of the following criteria:
CC1.1 have occurred (e.g., when a policy is first adopted; when a new program is first implemented - not just been planned), and
CC1.2 are related to the initiative's chosen goals and objectives, and
CC1.3 are new or modified programs, policies, or practices in different parts of the community or system (e.g., government, business, schools, health organizations), and
CC1.4 are facilitated by individuals who are members of the initiative or are acting on behalf of the initiative.
CC2 When considering whether an event is new or modified: to be judged as "new," a program, policy or practice must not have occurred before in the effort (e.g., with these groups of people, with these organizations or partners, in these settings, delivered in these ways). To be judged as "modified," a program, policy or practice must be expanded or altered (e.g., a training program was expanded to include new modules, a policy was altered to affect new groups of people, a program was delivered in new organizations or places).
CC3 When considering whether to score multiple events as one instance or as multiple instances of a community change: To be judged as multiple instances, changes must be implemented in multiple settings (e.g., different schools or businesses) or levels (e.g., local, state levels) AND require separate approvals (e.g., a school principle approved a life skills program to be taught in her school; a second principle later agreed to do so in his school). If the event either occurred in only one setting or occurred as a result of one approval, it is coded as one instance of community change (e.g., the school board agreed to implement a district-wide life skills program that was implemented in multiple schools).
CC4 When multiple entries of the same event are being entered/documented: The recorders involved should discuss how to record the event as a single entry (e.g., the same program implemented in the same place by multiple groups). If there is disagreement, a data coordinator should resolve differences to best represent how the environment is changing in a way that does not count the same event multiple times.
CC5 The first instance of implementation of a new program or practice in the community is coded as a community change, since it constitutes a change in a program or practice in the community.
CC6 A first time occurrence or enactment of a policy is recognized as a CC at the point of approval to implement the policy.
CC7 The first committed agreement of collaboration between two or more organizations or individuals facilitated by individual(s) who are acting on behalf of the initiative. For a collaboration to occur, independent groups must commit to sharing at least one of the following: 1) resources, 2) responsibilities, 3) risks, and/or 4) rewards.
CC8 Not all first-time events are community changes; the event must meet all parts of the definition of a community change. For example, if staff members attended a seminar for the first time it is generally not a community change.
CC9 Specifically excluded as community changes are Organizational Changes (e.g., new bylaws, completed action plan) and Resources Generated (e.g., a grant or donation to the initiative) that occur internal to the initiative.
Examples of Community Changes:
Members of the Promise Community Coalition brought together representatives from five sectors for the first time to form a speaker's bureau. This new program will help connect the community and is directly related to the coalitions' goals. (A new program. See coding instruction CC1.)
The University board approved a new campus policy related to early intervention around substance use/abuse after meeting with our DFC Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition. This new policy will help the initiative identify substance abuse among students earlier. (A policy change directly related to the coalition's actions and specific objectives. See coding instruction CC1.)
The DFC Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition and the local treatment center presented a workshop at the school for students and parents on prevention of youth substance use. This was the first time this workshop was presented in the community for local students and parents. This workshop helped educate community leaders. (A new program created by the coalition's partnering with a local resource. See coding instruction CC1.)
After speaking with our Youth Tobacco Free Coalition, law enforcement decided to revise their documentation practice to include additional information when enforcing laws with youth under the age of 18 caught with tobacco. This practice change in documentation will help identify specific populations in our community that have an elevated level of tobacco use. (A practice change. See coding instruction CC1.)
Examples of items not coded as Community Changes:
The Youth Tobacco Free Coalition plans to administer a new program to increase awareness of the effects of alcohol and other depressants on motor skills. This program will help educate high school students in the community. (Outcome written in the future tense. It will only be coded if it already occurred. See coding instruction CC1.1. This entry would be coded O.)
The Promise Community Coalition formed a new subcommittee to develop a strategic plan to address federal legislative issues. This new subcommittee will help the coalition form a better strategy for addressing legislative issues. (This would be coded as an Organizational Change because it reports a change in the organization of the initiative, not the community. See coding instruction CC1.3.)
The DFC Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition's administrative assistant reported that the AME church started a new Sunday afternoon support group for recovering substance abusers. This new program will help reach more people within our community. (As written, the program was not facilitated by the DFC Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition. See coding instruction CC1.4. The entry would be coded O.)
General Definition: Activities performed by members of the initiative or group to bring about a new or modified program, policy, or practice in the community or system related to the initiative or group's goals and objectives. Events categorized as Community Actions document the extensive effort it takes to make change in the community.
Community Actions include acting directly to make changes in the community, actively lobbying, or advocating with change agents. Examples include personal contacts, phone calls, demonstrations, petitions, and letter writing.
CA1 Community Actions must meet all of the following criteria:
CA1.1 have occurred (not just been planned), and
CA1.2 be related to the initiative's goals and objectives, and
CA1.3 be taken to bring about Community Change, and
CA1.4 are facilitated by individuals who are members of the initiative or acting on behalf of the initiative.
CA2 Specifically excluded as CA's are actions taken to produce Organizational Changes (e.g., new by-laws, completed action plan), program materials, and Resources Generated (e.g., a grant or donation to the initiative) that occur internal to the initiative
CA3 If presentations to community audiences include generating changes to be made in the community (e.g., listening sessions) or are aimed specifically at some change in the community (relative to the group's mission), then it is a Community Action. If not, a workshop or other presentation is coded as a Service Provided.
CA4 If two or more individuals are documenting a common set of activities and multiple entries of the same action are being entered/documented: The recorders involved should discuss how to record the action as a single entry (e.g., the same action taken toward the same school official). If there is disagreement, a data coordinator should resolve differences to best represent what actions were taken to change the environment in a way that does not count the same event multiple times.
CA5 Collaboration with community members (people external to the initiative) to set new agendas for the community are Community Actions. If this is the first occurrence of collaboration in the community, however, it could be a Community Change (a change in practice).
CA6 Actions taken to keep the group going--working on bylaws, soliciting funding for the group, or holding meetings among members of the group (e.g., committee, coalition)--are not considered to be Community Actions since they do not contribute directly to changes in the community related to the group's goals and objectives. Internal meetings among group members are generally not considered Community Actions.
CA6.1. Exceptions occur when members of groups targeted for change are also involved in the initiative and its committees and task forces. For example, at a committee meeting, an intervention for youth substance abuse prevention might be discussed with a representative of the police department. Since a representative of a community sector to be changed (i.e., law enforcement) was involved, it would be considered a Community Action.
Examples of Community Actions:
Three members of the Wichita Regional Prevention Center met with a group of five local retailers that sell books featuring drinking games. The retail store representatives will consider discontinuing the sale of these books. A follow up conference call is schedule for next week. (Community Action because it targets a practice change. See coding instruction CA1).
Members of the Topeka Youth Advocates coalition asked local merchants in Topeka to display signs of the drug free community initiative. The Youth Advocates wanted to visually display to the community the strength of their drug free community initiative. (Community Action because it is directly related to a Community Change relevant to the mission of drug free communities. See coding instruction CA1).
Promise Community Coalition members called their local legislators advocating for support of the Social Host Liability policy change. This policy is directly related to our goals because it ensures that those people who provide alcohol to anyone under the age of 21 will be held accountable. The Coalition feels stronger policies will help reduce the prevalence of under age drinking in their community. (Community Action because it is directly related to a Community Change relevant to the mission of preventing underage alcohol use. See coding instruction CA1.)
A third town hall meeting was held with the Hope Coalition and residents of the community to discuss how to increase opportunities for the community to be educated on the dangers of methamphetamine production. Ideas generated from the community were added to Hope Coalition's action plan. (Community Action because the actions were intended to bring about a Community Change, relative to substance abuse education. See coding instruction CA3).
Little Apple Task Force's subcommittee held a meeting to discuss community policies that may be related to adolescent alcohol use. Little Apple Task Force's main goal is increasing the quality of public education. (This is not a Community Action because no one external to the initiative (like policymaker) was present and it was not part of the mission of Little Apple Task Force. See coding instruction CA6. This entry would be coded O.)
Maria Holmes, executive director of Safe Streets Coalition, developed a database to record and track instances of local crime. (This is not a Community Action since Maria's actions were not taken to directly make changes in the community. See the definition and coding instruction CA 1.3. This entry would be coded O.)
The Derby Prevention Initiative's School Committee held a meeting to discuss the procedures for electing a chairperson. The committee hopes to have the new procedures in place for the upcoming election. (This is not a Community Action because it related to change in the committee, not the community. See coding instructions CA1 and CA6. This entry would be coded O.)
Representatives of the Promise Community Coalition will contact the Green Valley Neighborhood Association to arrange a meeting to discuss the implementation of a support group. The coalition hopes to have the support group in place within a year. (This item is a future event, not an action that already occurred. See coding instruction CA1.1. This entry would be coded O.)
General Definition: Actions taken to prepare or enable the group to address its goals and objectives (e.g., developing a community assessment, working on a strategic plan).
DA1 Development activities must meet all of the following criteria:
DA1.1. are actions taken to prepare or enable the group to do its work (e.g., developing a community assessment, working on a strategic or action plan, designing programs or interventions, developing evaluation instruments, developing plans for sustainability)
DA1.2. have occurred, not just planned
DA1.3. facilitated by members of the initiative or acting on behalf of the initiative
DA1.4 is not (or not yet) an Organizational Change, Service Provided, Community Action, or Community Change
DA2 Development activities include tasks that further the work of the initiative (i.e., assessment, collaborative planning, targeted action or intervention, evaluation, sustainability).
DA3 Development activities can lead to materials or products such as assessments, analyses of information, strategic plans, training manuals, evaluation plans or reports, organizational or sustainability plans, grant applications, or other products related to the work of the initiative.
DA4 Development activities include engagement with the broader community that prepares or enables the group to do its work (i.e., members of the initiative attending a meeting to increase individual skills or capacity to address initiative goals/objectives, or facilitating a meeting with the community aimed at a specific objective(s) like planning a drug free alternative for youth).
Examples of Development Activities:
John and Sue from the Coalition met with consultants about revising the community assessment. The updated community assessment will help the coalition better understand the community environment (See scoring instruction DA2).
The evaluation work group from the Safe Streets Coalition worked with evaluators on developing the evaluation plan. This plan will help Safe Streets better understand the effectiveness of their community efforts (See scoring instruction DA2).
John and Carol from the Community Coalition conducted a literature review of risk/protective factors to guide the group's intervention (See scoring instruction DA1.1).
The Coalition director met with funding agency to plan for future grant application. Securing additional funding will help sustain the coalition's intervention in later years (See scoring instruction DA2).
Sue, the evaluator for the coalition, created a tracking program for the initiative's activities. This tracking program will help the coalition better analyze the efforts put into each intervention (See scoring instruction DA3).
The Coalition planning committee worked with collaborative partners to develop a draft action plan. The action plan will be a guide for future community activities (See scoring instruction DA1.4).
Examples of items that are not scored as Development Activities:
The Director of the Coalition scheduled a series of monthly meetings with funding agency for ongoing strategy development. (The meetings would eventually be coded as Development activities, but not until they actually occurred. See scoring instruction DA1.1 and DA1.2. Entry would be scored as O)
School board members met to discuss a review of literature on risk factors related to the problem. (This is not a Development Activity since it was not done by members of the initiative. See scoring instruction DA1.3. Entry would be scored as an O unless school board members are part of the initiative.)
Sue and John from the coalition gave a presentation to the City Council to raise awareness about the project and what it has accomplished. (This is a Service Provided since it involves providing information and communications to community members outside the initiative.)
The coalition members met and developed goals for community change the next quarter. (This is an Organizational Change. See scoring instructions OC 1.)
Services Provided (SP)
General Definition: The delivery of information, training, material goods, or other activities by members of the initiative to people in the community. Services provided include classes, programs, services (e.g., screenings), workshops, material goods, or other services. Records on services provided might include the number of classes or programs conducted and the number of participants in those classes/programs.
SP1 Services provided must meet all of the following criteria:
SP1.1. have occurred and/or are ongoing, and
SP1.2. are information, training, material goods, or other services, and
SP1.3. are sponsored or facilitated by members of the initiative, and
SP1.4. are delivered to the community served by the initiative.
SP2 When a new program is initiated (i.e., a community change), its first instance of implementation should also be coded as a Service Provided if it meets the criteria for SP. Any continuing instances of programs are coded as Services Provided.
SP3 If a presentation (e.g., to the City Council), is intended to bring about a community/system change, then it should be coded as a Community Action (CA). If a presentation is intended to simply deliver information, then it should be coded as a SP.
SP4 Each instance of a Service Provided (e.g., each delivery of a class or workshop) should be entered and coded separately in the CCB.
SP5 Events to plan services (e.g., meetings to decide the content of a class) are coded as Other.
SP6 Media communications that provide information about the initiative's issue and ways to address it are scored as an SP if facilitated/ contributed by the initiative (e.g., media or social marketing campaign facilitated/ contributed by the initiative).
SP7 Excluded as Services Provided are Media Coverage (M) and Resources Generated (e.g., a grant or donation to the initiative) that occur internal to the initiative.
Examples of Services Provided:
The Derby School Committee led a life skills module on resisting peer pressure. Participants of the session were approximately 30 forth grade students from Sunnyside Elementary. (This is a Service Provided since the session provided a service related to the Derby School Committee's mission. See coding instructions SP1 and SP3.)
The DFC Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition held substance abuse prevention workshops for social workers in the regional area. (This is a Service Provided because it is a workshop related to reducing risks for health problems targeted by the initiative. See coding instructions SP1 and SP3.)
The DFC Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition held a conference on evidence-based substance abuse programs for 20 community agencies. (This is a Service Provided since it is an educational program related to the goals and objectives of the initiative. See coding instructions SP1 and SP3.)
The Meth Project team members led a workshop on evidence-based meth abuse prevention programs for drug treatment centers in Kansas. (This is a Service Provided since it is an educational program delivered by the initiative related to the goals and objectives of the group. See coding instructions SP1 and SP3.)
Little Apple Task Force developed a mailing list of potential conference attendees. This list of potential attendees ranged from state wide participants to local participants. It required several meetings to complete this process. (This is planning for a future service. The later result will be the formation of a conference. See coding instruction SP1.1. This item would be coded as O.)
The DFC Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition has planned substance abuse prevention education workshops for the community elementary schools. The plan is to reach 1,000 elementary students. The workshops will be conducted in the month of March. (This service has not yet occurred. See coding instruction SP1.1. This entry would be coded O.)
The Derby School Committee presented a new policy proposal to the Derby School Board regarding the policy on taser use within the Derby Schools. The presentation was presented to the Board with the intention to modify the current policy. The Board is considering the proposal and will announce its decision at the next School Board meeting next month. (This service was intended to bring about a community change. See coding instruction SP3. This entry would be coded as a CA.)
General Definition: Promotion of the initiative or its activities through coverage by a media outlet (e.g., newspaper, radio, television) or by non person-to-person distribution of materials related to the initiative, group, or its efforts (e.g., flyers, brochures).
M1 Media coverage must meet all of the following criteria:
M1.1. have occurred (not just planned), and
M1.2. be an instance of coverage through radio time, television time, newspaper article, internet, advertising, newsletter, or other media outlet or other non person-to-person distribution of materials and
M1.3. feature the initiative or its activities.
M2 Media coverage is counted if it features the project, even if the coverage was not initiated directly by the group. Airings and articles not facilitated by the initiative are valid only if the name of the initiative or one of its projects or products is mentioned or referred to.
M3 Internally produced media (such as newsletters, newsletter articles) can be counted as media coverage.
M4 These may be coded as: a) instances of coverage, b) column inches of coverage (for print media), and/or c) minutes of coverage (for broadcast media).
M5 Simply distributing a press release is not considered to be an instance of Media coverage. However, it would be counted as an instance of Media coverage at the point of time in which it is picked up as a story in a local media outlet (e.g., newspaper, radio, television, newsletter).
Examples of Media Coverage:
A newspaper article described the Smart Start initiative, which began this week. Chris Smith from the Smart Start initiative was interviewed for this article and the Smart Start initiative was mentioned by name. (Coded as 1 unit and/or the column inches used. See coding instructions M1 and documentation instructions.)
Five, 10 minute radio spots describing the Strong Family Ties initiative aired on the local AM radio station. Amy Martin, the Program Director, was interviewed and spoke about the details of the initiative. (Coded as 5 units and/or 50 broadcast minutes. See coding instructions M1 and documentation instructions.)
Eight, 3 minute radio spots describing the Social Hosting Liability policy change efforts aired on the local FM station. Nell Miller, ad advocate with the initiative was interviewed. (Coded as 8 units and/or 24 broadcast minutes. See coding instructions M1 and documentation instructions.)
An article on a substance abuse prevention effort in Washington, DC public schools appeared in the local newspaper. The article featured quotes from the superintendents of five DC schools. (This is not an instance since the program was not connected to the initiative. See coding instructions M1.3 and M2. This entry would be coded O.)
The local health department developed and distributed a public service announcement on the dangers of marijuana. (This is not an instance since the press release was sent but the story has not yet been picked up by the media. See coding instruction M5. Entry is coded O.)
Record the number of instances and the extent of coverage (i.e., column inches of print media, minutes of broadcast media) for each media exposure. For TV and radio, every airing of a public service announcement (PSA), news report, or event in which the initiative or one of its programs is mentioned is counted as a discrete instance and/or in broadcast minutes. Every newspaper article mentioning the initiative or program is counted as an instance. Every newsletter article is an instance. Each different brochure disseminated is an instance.
When writing descriptions of Media Coverage:
How was the initiative involved?
(Must be either featured by name OR facilitated by a member of the initiative)
General Definition: Acquisition of funding or other resources for the initiative through grants, donations, or gifts in kind. Resources generated can include money, materials, and people's time.
RG1 Resources generated must meet all of the following criteria:
RG1.1. have occurred (not just pending or planned), and
RG1.2. be in the form of money, materials, or people's donated time, and
RG1.3. be used to facilitate activities related to the goals and objectives of the initiative, and
RG1.4. be allocated to the initiative or one of its partners, and
RG1.5. are facilitated by individuals who are members of the initiative or are acting on behalf of the initiative.
RG2 Estimate the value of the donated time by calculating the hourly market value of the services (e.g., professional wage, minimum wage) multiplied by the number of hours of service.
RG3 Estimate the market value of donated materials. For example, if the newspaper donated advertising space for a special event, determine the market value of that advertising space.
RG4 Count grant monies when they are disbursed. For example, if a 5-year, $500,000 grant was awarded and disbursed at $100,000 per year, count one instance of $100,000 every year over the grant period.
RG5 Each separate grant or donation is considered to be a unit of resources generated.
Examples of items coded as Resources Generated:
The Community Health Coalition was awarded a $1,000 grant from SAMHSA. These funds will be used to develop and field-test a new life skills workshop. (New grant received. See coding instruction RG1.2)
Whole Foods Market donated fruits and vegetables for the initiative's education program. (Donations provided to the initiative for its projects. See coding instruction RG1)
The county health department assigned John Thompson, their research associate, to serve as a free consultant for the Wichita Promise Youth Council evaluation effort that is examining program effectiveness. (Staff time was donated. See coding instructions RG1.2 and RG2)
A three year implementation grant was awarded by the Health Foundation. This grant will enable the Youth Health Coalition to launch a new campaign focused on preventing youth tobacco use. (New grant is a Resources Generated. See coding instructions RG1 and RG4)
Thirty volunteers assisted with the project-sponsored 10-K run to raise awareness of dangers of alcohol. (Volunteers donated time. See coding instruction RG2.)
A copying machine was donated to the initiative. This machine will be used for administrative tasks associated with the DFC Youth's efforts to prevent substance abuse. (Donation of materials for the initiative. See coding instruction RG1.2).
The Youth as Resources fundraising committee submitted a grant proposal to the Governor's Office. This grant will fund the development of an after school program. (This is an Organizational Change since the application has not yet resulted in a grant. See coding instructions RG1.1. and OC1. Entry would be coded O.)
A partner received funding for activities not related to the initiative. (Resources Generated must be used to facilitate activities related to the goals and objectives of the initiative. See coding instruction RG1.3.)
Documentation Instructions: When writing Resources Generated descriptions:
What was the resource generated?
(the money, material, or donated time)
General Definition: Additional activities that are recorded for which no code or definition has been created. Activities which the group desires to track but that do not fall under one of the group's existing codes should be coded with an "O."
O1 If an item is coded as an "O," it is not also coded as something else.